Monday, January 08, 2007

Prova de inglês do Mackenzie 2007 comparada à da Fuvest

Prometi comparar as provas de inglês do Mackenzie e da Fuvest há um tempo. Desculpem-me pela demora! Aqui vai.
Uma das análises que nos ajudam a saber se uma prova é mais fácil do que a outra é verificar o número de palavras que se parecem com palavras em português. Num outro post aqui no blog, já publiquei o percentual de palavras transparentes (parecidas com palavras em nosso idioma) no primeiro texto da prova da Fuvest.
Vejamos o percentual na prova do Mackenzie agora. As palavras parecidas (transparentes) podem ter o mesmo significado que as palavras em português, mas nem sempre! Ressaltei-as em vermelho.
No primeiro texto da Fuvest, há 31% de palavras parecidas com vocábulos do português. Na do Mackenzie, salvo engano desses meus olhos cansados e da minha péssima matemática (Estudei Letras, não Números! rs,rs,rs), há quase o mesmo percentual: 30%.
Por que meu sobrinho Danilo acertou mais questões na prova do Mackenzie, então? Se vocês leram minhas postagens sobre a Fuvest e respostas para o Danilo, podem ter uma pista. Alguém se arrisca? Essa pergunta é muito fácil!
Ninety-five per cent of adult Americans average seven to eight hours a night. The rest seem to need more than nine hours, or get along nicely on less than six. What distinguishes the long and short sleepers from the majority? To get some answers, psychiatrist Ernest L. Hartmann, 36, advertised in Boston and New York papers for long and short sleepers to engage in an eight-night “sleep-in” at Boston State Hospital’s Sleep and Dream laboratory, which Hartmann directs. His findings indicate that such people differ from ordinary sleepers – and each other – not so much physically as psychologically. For them sleep serves varying, sometimes surprising purposes.
Testing showed significant psychological differences between long and short sleepers. The shorts tended to be conformist and emotionally stable: “a successful and relatively healthy bunch with very little overt psychopathology”, says Hartmann. “Their entire life-style involved keeping busy and avoiding psychological problems rather than facing them.” They also awakened seldom during the night and arose in the morning refreshed and ready to go.
Long sleepers, in contrast, checked out as nonconformist, shy, somewhat withdrawn, and melancholy. Reports Hartmann: “Almost all showed evidence of some inhibition in the spheres of sexual or aggressive functioning. Some betrayed “mild anxiety neuroses” and depression.
Moreover, they slept fitfully, waked often and typically got up with a mild case of the morning blahs.
At first Hartmann was tempted to classify the restless long sleepers as “well-compensated insomniacs” who had to spend more hours in bed simply to get enough sleep. He changed his mind with the discovery that long, short and average sleepers all spend about the same amount of time in what researchers call “slow-wave sleep”, the deep and relatively dreamless state, totalling some 75 minutes a night, when people are presumed to get their real recuperation from the activities of the previous day. Additionally, Hartmann concluded that long sleepers spent nearly twice as much as others in REM (rapid eye movement) sleep – a state in which the sleeper’s brain is as active as in full consciousness.
REM sleep is dream sleep. In addition to the long sleeper’s measurably greater need to dream – that is, to mull over the problems of wakeful life– psychiatrist Hartmann proposes another function of sleep. Since the long sleeper shows more symptoms of emotional problems that the short sleeper, who resolutely avoids his problems anyway, it seems that he may use his hours in bed to give his subconscious sleeping self more time to examine these problems and, if possible, to work them out.
(Adapted from Time.)

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